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NFHS rules publications now available as e-books

The NFHS Football Rules Book is now available through iTunes, and rules books for field hockey, soccer and volleyball will be available soon, as well as case books in football and volleyball. Winter and spring rules publications will also follow later in the year for Apple users on iTunes. Currently, the NFHS writes playing rules for 16 sports for girls and boys competition at the high school level, and annually publishes about 25 rules books, case books, officials manuals and handbooks.

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More than 1. The NFHS writes playing rules in the sports of baseball, basketball, cross country, field hockey, football, girls gymnastics, ice hockey, boys lacrosse, soccer, softball, spirit, swimming and diving, track and field, volleyball, water polo and wrestling. NFHS playing rules are written specifically for varsity competition among student-athletes of high school age and are intended to maintain the sound traditions of the sport, preserve the balance between offense and defense, encourage sportsmanship and minimize the inherent risk of injury for participants.

The MIAA declined to comment on the incident for this story.

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High school game officials are trained to tolerate spontaneous outbursts over their decisions. But school contests are treated as extensions of the daily educational experience, and offensive behavior is prohibited. Most schools announce before games that spectators are expected to treat players, coaches, and officials respectfully. Yet abuses abound, according to many game officials. Fredericks said in an interview that he perceives negative behavior as an ongoing problem, not an epidemic. Finding a school official who cannot recount an abusive incident is a rarity.

2013-14 NFHS Basketball Case Book

Other times, in a scenario that is not uncommon for high school officials, Quinn has needed police to escort him to his car after games. He said the problem has persistently worsened.

Steve Kulpa, a relatively new official, could have used a police escort after a freshman soccer game in September on the South Coast. In the parking lot, Kulpa experienced something similar to Fitzgerald: an angry parent who, unprovoked, threatened to punch him. Kulpa said he had trouble controlling the game, both because he was the only official working the contest and because a coach inflamed the situation by vociferously denigrating his performance and threatening to take his team off the field.

Kulpa, 62, is completing his second season as a high school soccer official. It may be his last.

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An estimated 70 percent of new officials walk away from the job within two years for various reasons, according to the National Association of Sports Officials. DeNapoli said the national figure squares with his experience assigning soccer officials.

2019-20 NFHS Soccer Rules Changes

The shortage of young referees is especially acute. The average age of a game official in Massachusetts is Yet many older officials also are packing away their whistles.

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State and national interscholastic organizations are trying to recruit new officials. The national federation has launched a recruiting website, and its member states have joined the social media campaign. To date, they have targeted first responders and educators. But the challenges run deeper than abusive fans. Teachers, who for decades have been drawn to officiating as a second job, are working longer days in school and now are less likely to join the ranks.

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Escalating traffic woes, especially in eastern Massachusetts, have made traveling to many assignments more difficult than ever, making the job even less appealing. Further aggravating matters has been the threat of the deadly Eastern equine encephalitis virus. Health concerns have caused schools in some areas to reschedule night games hours earlier, which has created so many afternoon games that assigners have struggled to meet the demand. The shortage has coincided with an 18 percent increase since in the number of students participating in high school sports in Massachusetts. So, too, are appeals for greater civility on the sidelines. Bob Hohler can be reached at robert. Mary Fitzgerald has joined the ranks of former officials who found working conditions unacceptable. A referee talks with two teams before a football game.